This photograph is from an album created on Sakhalin Island in the 1890s. Sakhalin was used by imperial Russia as a penal colony and place of exile for criminals and political prisoners. Between 1869 and 1906, more than 30,000 inmates and exiles endured the harsh conditions of the forced-labor colony on the island. The album, from the collections of the National Library of Russia, contains photographs that provide rare glimpses of Sakhalin's settlements and prisons and the prisoners, exiles, and guards who inhabited the island. The photographs show convicts working and prisoners in leg manacles or with partially shorn hair, most likely administered as punishment for attempts at escape. The album also contains photographs of Ainu people, the indigenous people of the island who also live on the Kurile Islands and in Hokkaido, northern Japan, and of Tungus, another indigenous people settled in eastern Siberia and on Sakhalin Island. The photographer who made the album is believed to have been Innokentii Ignat'evich Pavlovskii (born 1855), the manager of the telegraph station at Dui. Anton Chekhov, the Russian writer and medical doctor, spent three months on Sakhalin in 1890, where he extensively researched the plight of the prisoners and the native population. The publication of his Sakhalin Island in 1895 highlighted the depravity of the situation in this remote corner of Russia and led to public protests that helped bring about the closure of the penal colony.
Place: Europe; Russian Federation; Sakhalin Oblast; Penzenskoye
Institution: National Library of Russia
Physical description: 1 photograph ; 22.6 x 17 centimeters